Introduction

The bibliography provides information on writings dealing with the history of rape, including sexual child abuse, sexual harassment, sexual molestation, child prostitution, forced prostitution, sexual slavery, sexual(ized) violence. The blog informs about calls for papers, forthcoming events and new literature in this field.

June 29, 2013

ART: Fighting Gender-Based Violence: The Women's Movement and the Enforcement of Rape Law in Liberia

Author: Peace A. Medie
Title: Fighting Gender-Based Violence
Subtitle: The Women's Movement and the Enforcement of Rape Law in Liberia
Journal: African Affairs: The Journal of the Royal African Society
Volume: Advance Access
Year: June 19, 2013
Pages: 21 pages
ISSN: 0001-9909 - eISSN: 1468-2621
Language: English
Full Text: Oxford Journals [Restricted Access]

Abstract: »Many African states have adopted laws that criminalize rape and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV), but the enforcement of such laws is often weak. Many rape cases are never brought to court and victims are frequently encouraged to accept reconciliation instead of prosecution of offenders. Drawing on research from post-conflict Liberia, this article investigates the ability of women's movements to influence the state's implementation of rape law, and seeks to theorize the relationship between women's activism and the enforcement of rape law. It documents the range of strategies adopted by the Liberian women's movement, and argues that these tactics have contributed to an increased referral of rape cases to court. This was made possible by two conditions: a relatively open political environment and political and material support from international organizations, which in turn enabled women's NGOs to gain access to and make an impression on the implementation process. This demonstrates the capacity of civil society organizations in Africa's more open and internationally connected states to influence policy at the implementation stage – even in particularly challenging areas such as women's rights.« [Source: African Affairs]

ART: Séduire: agresser ou charmer? Un aperçu historique

Author: Olivier Sabarot
Title: Séduire: agresser ou charmer?
Subtitle: Un aperçu historique
Translation: Seduce: abuse or charm? An historical perspective
Journal: Ethnologie française
Volume: 43
Issue: 3
Year: 2013
Pages: 505-513
ISSN: 0046-2616 - eISSN: 2101-0064
Language: French
Full Text: Cairn.info [Restricted Access]

Abstract: »The approach and the sexual relation are constituent moments of the individual capital of feminity and masculinity. In 19th century and during the first third of the 20th France takes shape a relative feminine emancipation and a softening of the modes close to seduction to the roughness of the previous period which made the sexual close to rape, succeeded softer practices leading free relations. The flirtation, mainly, establishes a new shape between punctual relation and engagement. These changes do not however question the fundamental asymmetry of the gendered roles.« [Source: Ethnologie française]

THESIS: Mythical Creatures: The Gothic/Romantic Evolution of the Pained Female Rape Victim

Author: Stacy Affleckt
Title: Mythical Creatures
Subtitle: The Gothic/Romantic Evolution of the Pained Female Rape Victim
Thesis: M.A. Thesis, Rutgers-The States University of New Jersey
Year: 2013
Pages: ii + 69pp.
Language: English
Full Text: RUcore - Rutgers University Community Repository [Free Access]

Description: »Rape myths have almost always had a place in literature. Yet, Gothic/Romantic works depicted new and shocking images of the female rape victim, with a particular emphasis on pain. Works like Matthew Lewis’ The Monk and Percy Shelley’s The Cenci break the stereotypical myths written about rape victims in works like Henry Fielding’s Rape upon Rape and Samuel Richardson’s Clarissa. The transition from 18th century literature into Gothic/Romantic literature marked an evolution in sensibility, which led the reader to feel a stronger sense of sympathy for women and the rape victim by focusing on pain. Works that represented rape as humorous or harmless may have been provoked by socioeconomic changes, while works that showed the myths about rape to be fallacious advanced those same socioeconomic changes.« [Source: RUcore]

THESIS: Pre-Biblical and Old Testament Rape Law Parallels: Recurring Androcentric Themes in Historic Biblical Text

Author: Jake J. Jones
Title: Pre-Biblical and Old Testament Rape Law Parallels
Subtitle: Recurring Androcentric Themes in Historic Biblical Text
Thesis: M.A. Thesis, Rutgers-The States University of New Jersey
Year: May 2013
Pages: iii + 29pp.
Language: English
Full Text: Graduate Liberal Studies Program, Rutgers [Free Access]

Abstract: »Rape legislation in ancient Near Eastern texts is very slanted in respect to a pervasive androcentric ideology that drives the punitive outcomes. Unfortunately, evidence shows the lives of women in terms of their perceived societal value are affected (often negatively) in regard to their social status; regardless of region or period. Women did not wield much social power in ancient times and the laws demonstrate resolutions for prescribed transgressions that neglected to include any consideration for the viewpoint of women; who were the primary victims of the rape offense. As a result, women suffered and were historically antagonized by the these laws which failed to protect them. This research will illuminate the disparities by examining the laws in various regions of the period and challenge the underlying themes.« [Source: Thesis]

REV: The Narrative of Rape in Genesis 34: Interpreting Dinah’s Silence

Author: Sandie Gravett
Title: Review of Caroline Blyth, The Narrative of Rape in Genesis 34: Interpreting Dinah’s Silence, Oxford: Oxford University Press 2010, xii+277 pp., ISBN 978-0-19-95845-6
Journal: Religion & Gender
Volume: 3
Issue: 1
Year: 2013
Pages: 125-127
ISSN: 1878-5417
Language: English
Full Text: Religion & Gender [Free Access]

REZ: The political psychology of war rape: studies from Bosnia and Herzegovina

Author: Lisa Sharlach
Title: The political psychology of war rape: studies from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Inger Skjelsbaek, 2012. London and New York: Routledge. 172 pp., ISBN 9780415671170, £85.00 (hardback)
Journal: Journal of Gender Studies
Volume: 22
Issue: 2
Year: 2013
Pages: 234-235
ISSN: 0958-9236 - eISSN: 1465-3869
Language: English
Full Text: Taylor & Francis Online [Restricted Access]

CFP: Warscapes

Journal: Warscapes
Editors-in-chief: Michael Bronner, Bhakti Shringarpure
Submission deadline: ongoing
More information: CFP website

Description: »Warscapes is an independent online magazine that provides a lens into current conflicts across the world. Warscapes publishes fiction, non-fiction, poetry, interviews, book and film reviews, photo-essays and retrospectives of war literature from the past fifty years. Apart from showcasing great writing from war-torn areas, the magazine is a tool for understanding complex political crises in various regions and serves as an alternative to compromised representations of those issues.«

RADIO: Aufarbeitung von Missbrauch und Gewalt

Title: Aufarbeitung von Missbrauch und Gewalt
Program: Katholische Welt
Channel: Bayern 2
Date: June 23, 2013
Duration: 26:10 min.
Language: German
Podcast: Bayerischer Rundfunk

Description: »Vor mehr als drei Jahren wurde der sogenannte Missbrauchsskandal in der katholischen Kirche bekannt. Bistümer und Orden versprachen nach dem Bekanntwerden der Taten, die Opfer zu entschädigen, die Vergehen aufzuarbeiten und dafür zu sorgen, dass sich so etwas in der Zukunft nicht wiederhole. Was ist aus alledem inzwischen geworden? Irene Esmann hat nachgefragt.«

RADIO: Kampf um die geraubte Würde. Annemarie Stoltenberg im Gespräch mit Mandy Kopp

Title: Kampf um die geraubte Würde. Annemarie Stoltenberg im Gespräch mit Mandy Kopp
Program: Klassik à la carte
Channel: NDR Kultur
Date: June 28, 2013
Duration: 32:06 min.
Language: German
Podcast: Norddeutscher Rundfunk

Description: »"Heute kämpfe ich für jedes Stück Würde, das man mir genommen hat", sagt Mandy Kopp - und erzählt endlich ihre Geschichte: die Geschichte einer Heranwachsenden, die im Nachwende-Leipzig zur Prostitution gezwungen wird und mit vier anderen Mädchen in die Strukturen organisierten Missbrauchs und psychischen Terrors gerät.«

June 22, 2013

ART: Experiences of forced mothers in northern Uganda: the legacy of war

Author: Grace Akello
Title: Experiences of forced mothers in northern Uganda
Subtitle: The legacy of war
Journal: Intervention. International Journal of Mental Health, Psychosocial Work and Counselling in Areas of Armed Conflict
Volume: Published Ahead-of-Print
Year: June 14, 2013
Pages:
ISSN: 1571-8883 - eISSN: 1872-1001
Language: English
Full Text: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins [Restricted Access]

Abstract: »From 1986-2007, the Lord's Resistance Army inflicted severe suffering on civilians in northern Uganda through indiscriminate killing and child abductions. While both abducted boys and girls were trained to use arms, girls were commonly distributed among commanders as forced 'wives'. These traumatised girls and young women (both pregnant and 'forced mothers') were retained in rehabilitation centres longer than any other ex-combatants. While they may have been accorded special privileges in the centres, after reintegration, their home communities stigmatised and discriminated against both mothers and children. This paper discusses the experiences of forced mothers and their children, while at rehabilitation centres, and through the reintegration process. Additionally, it examines how communities should be stimulated to view forced mothers and their children as survivors of multiple human rights violations.« [Source: Intervention]

ART: Protecting a Woman’s Honor or Protecting Her Sexual Freedom? Challenging the Guatemalan Patriarchal State through Reforms to Sexual Violence Legislation

Author: Sarah England
Title: Protecting a Woman’s Honor or Protecting Her Sexual Freedom?
Subtitle: Challenging the Guatemalan Patriarchal State through Reforms to Sexual Violence Legislation
Journal: Latin American Perspectives
Volume: Published online before print
Year: June 13, 2013
Pages: 19 pages
ISSN: 0094-582X - eISSN: 1552-678X
Language: English
Full Text: SAGE Journals [Restricted Access]

Abstract: »The coming of peace in Central America after several decades of civil war and military dictatorships has not resulted in an end to violence. Murder rates have risen to such a degree that these countries are among the most violent in the world. One form of violence that has received a great deal of attention is the murder of women, but many argue that this is only one of many forms of violence that women face on a daily basis. The women’s organizations that have emerged in Guatemala since the end of the civil war have focused on demanding greater political and economic rights for women and laws that recognize violence against women as a crime and improve the mechanisms for investigating and prosecuting it. Two recent laws redefine sex crimes in such a way as to suggest that they should be seen as heinous acts regardless of the woman’s sexual history, character, or age. Though these discursive changes are a triumph, problems with the legal system and the persistence of sexist ideologies have so far limited the effectiveness of these new laws.« [Source: Latin American Perspectives]

ART: Treatment of Captives in Ancient Greek Warfare: A Vicious Circle

Author: Antony Kalashnikov
Title: Treatment of Captives in Ancient Greek Warfare
Subtitle: A Vicious Circle
Journal: Vexillum: The Undergraduate Journal of Classical and Medieval Studies
Volume: 3
Issue: -
Year: 2013
Pages: 9 pages
Language: English
Full Text: Vexillum [Free Access]

Abstract: »The Nereid Monument in the Lycean tomb, dated to between 390 and 380 BCE, depicts a besieged city in which a woman is tearing out her hair in lament of her potential fate – rape, enslavement, and possibly death. The image testifies to the cruel and inhumane treatment of captives that often characterized ancient Greek warfare, particularly with respect to siege warfare. In ancient Greece, only the taking of a city resulted in a large number of captives, both combatants and civilians. This essay argues that the treatment of captives constituted a vicious cycle in which the defenders of city would resolutely resist the siege for fear of massacre, mass rape, and enslavement; this stalwart defense, in turn, would contribute to cruel treatment of captives when and if the city fell. I organize this paper in the following way: after outlining the treatment of captives in Greek siege warfare in general, I explore the options that defenders faced and examine the motives of cruel treatment of captives in the light of having faced hardened resistance during the siege. Lastly, I examine a possible limitation to this argument posed by the distinction Greek philosophers drew between Greek and barbarian combatants, but demonstrate the argument’s continued validity despite this assertion.« [Source: Vexillum]

BOOK: Guerra alle donne. Partigiane, vittime di stupro, «amanti del nemico», 1940–45

Author: Michela Ponzani
Title: Guerra alle donne
Subtitle: Partigiane, vittime di stupro, «amanti del nemico», 1940–45
Place: Turin
Publisher: Einaudi
Year: 2012
Pages: 320pp.
ISBN-13: 9788806206895
Language: Italian

THESIS: Wartime Atrocities and the Politics of Treason in the Ruins of the Japanese Empire, 1937-1953

Author: Konrad Lawson
Title: Wartime Atrocities and the Politics of Treason in the Ruins of the Japanese Empire, 1937-1953
Subtitle: -
Thesis: PhD Thesis, Harvard University
Year: September 2012
Pages: viii + 396pp.
Language: English
Full Text: Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard [Free Access]

Abstract:
»This dissertation explores the relationship between violence and betrayal in retribution against military and police collaborators who helped maintain Japan’s wartime occupations up until its defeat in 1945. Looking at the approaches taken in the colonies of British Asia, postwar treason trials in the Philippines, and Chinese Communist approaches in wartime and postwar Shandong province, this study argues that the laws and rhetoric of treason were deeply flawed tools for confronting the atrocities of war. At the very moment that war crimes trials were defining a set of acts that constituted crimes against all humanity, around the world thousands of individuals who helped perpetrate them were treated as primarily guilty of crimes against the nation. Each of the chapters in this work examines the costs and consequences of this for postwar societies on the eve of decolonization and civil war.
Throughout the territories under Japanese occupation, locally recruited military and police forces comprised the largest category of individuals to face accusations of treason in the aftermath of war, but were also those most likely to be complicit in atrocities. Among the ranks of the disloyal, they were both the most useful as well as the most dangerous to postwar regimes and almost always separated out from other accused collaborators. Their treason was often treated as a disease of the heart which, once cured, allowed them to be deployed once more. Attempts to try them for their betrayal often faced destabilizing political opposition, especially in cases where their wartime actions were carried out in the name of independence from colonial rule, and were almost always reduced in scale to focus on those accused both of treason and atrocities. Marred by the politics of betrayal, the resulting hybrid proceedings failed to achieve a reckoning with wartime massacres and torture.« [Source: Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard]

REV: Guerra alle donne. Partigiane, vittime di stupro, «amanti del nemico», 1940–45

Author: Chiara Corazza
Title: Michela Ponzani, Guerra alle donne. Partigiane, vittime di stupro, «amanti del nemico» 1940-45, Torino, Einaudi, 2012, pp. XVI – 320
Journal: Deportate, esuli, profughe. Rivista telematica di studi sulla memoria femminile
Volume: -
Issue: 21
Year: January 2013
Pages: 208-210
ISSN: 1824-4483
Language: English
Full Text: Deportate, esuli, profughe [Free Access]

REV: Guerra alle donne. Partigiane, vittime di stupro, «amanti del nemico», 1940–45

Author: Molly Tambor
Title: Michela Ponzani (2012) Guerra alle donne. Partigiane, vittime di stupro, ‘amanti del nemico’, 1940–45 (Turin: Einaudi), 314 pp. ISBN 9788806206895, 25, hard cover
Journal: Journal of Modern Italian Studies
Volume: 18
Issue: 3
Year: 2013
Pages: 371-373
ISSN: 1354-571X - eISSN: 1469-9583
Language: English
Full Text: Taylor & Francis Online [Restricted Access]

RADIO: "Beschützer als Täter": Sexuelle Gewalt durch UN-Soldaten im Kongo

Title: "Beschützer als Täter": Sexuelle Gewalt durch UN-Soldaten im Kongo
Program: Plan B Reportage
Channel: 1LIVE
Date: June 17, 2013
Duration: 36:59 min.
Language: German
Podcast: 1LIVE

Description: »Hunderttausende Menschen sind im Ost-Kongo auf der Flucht vor dem Krieg. Blauhelmsoldaten sollen die Zivilbevölkerung schützen. Doch manchmal werden selbst die Beschützer zu Gefahr für Leib und Seele der Flüchtlinge. WDR Reporter Pagonis Pagonakis ist in den gefährlichen Osten Kongos gereist, sprach mit Opfern, Insidern und ist der Sache nachgegangen, wie es passieren kann, dass Helfer selbst zu Tätern werden.«

RADIO: Soraya, Gaddafis Beutekind

Title: Soraya, Gaddafis Beutekind
Program: Kontext
Channel: SRF 2 Kultur
Date: June 17, 2013
Duration: 21:32 min.
Language: German
Podcast: SRF

Description:
»Die Geschichte einer jungen Frau, die nun mit 22 Jahren nach jahrelangem Sexsklaventum in Gaddafis Palast nach dem Tod des Diktators vom Überleben zum Leben finden muss.
Soraya wurde mit 15 Jahren vom Schulhausplatz weg von Gaddafis Vasallen entführt und im Palast vom Diktator zur Kinderhure gemacht. Jahrelang wurde sie vergewaltigt und gedemütigt, mit Drogen gefügig gemacht und isoliert.
Die französische Journalistin Annick Cojean ist bei einer Recherche für «Le Monde» über die Situation libyscher Frauen nach dem Tod Gaddafis auf Soraya gestossen. Sie hat ihr Vertrauen gewonnen und aus ihrem Bericht ein Buch gemacht. «La Proie» heisst es und schockiert seit einiger Zeit Libyen und Frankreich gleichermassen. Nun ist Cojeans Buch übersetzt. «Niemand hört mein Schreien» heisst es.
Cornelia Kazis erhellt im Gespräch mit ihrer französischen Berufskollegin die Geschichte und geht der Frage nach, was das multimedial verbreitete Zeugnis für Soraya bedeutet.«

June 15, 2013

ART: Reinforcing Demands for Gender Justice: The War Crimes Tribunal of Bangladesh

Author: Zakia Afrin
Title: Reinforcing Demands for Gender Justice
Subtitle: The War Crimes Tribunal of Bangladesh
Journal: Samar: South Asian Magazine for Action and Reflection
Volume: -
Issue: 40
Year: May 31, 2013
Pages: 3pp.
Language: English
Full Text: Samar [Free Access], Digital Commons: The Legal Scholarship Repository @ Golden Gate University School of Law [Free Access]

Abstracts:
»In 2010, the Bangladesh Government, led by Sheikh Hasina, set up the International Crimes Tribunal and charged as many as 12 individuals for participating and assisting in war crimes and crimes against humanity during Bangladesh’s war of independence from Pakistan. The tribunals not only address the worst rape concentration camps in history; they also reveal the inner struggles of a society as it faces demands for gender justice, along with secularism and social justice. Unnoticed by most of the world, there is a revolution happening here.« [Source: Samar]
»Ferdousi was one of the first women who came forward to acknowledge being a victim of rape and sexual slavery during the liberation war of Bangladesh in 1971. Today she has become part of the youth movement in Bangladesh, known as the Shahbag movement, supporting the International Crimes Tribunal and demanding the maximum penalty for those who are found guilty. In 2010, the Bangladesh Government, led by Sheikh Hasina, set up the International Crimes Tribunal and charged as many as 12 individuals for participating and assisting in war crimes and crimes against humanity during Bangladesh’s war of independence from Pakistan. The tribunals not only address the worst rape concentration camps in history; they also reveal the inner struggles of a society as it faces demands for gender justice, along with secularism and social justice. Unnoticed by most of the world, there is a revolution happening here.« [Source: Digital Commons: The Legal Scholarship Repository]

ART: Sleeping with the Enemy: Recent Scholarship on Sexuality in the Book of Judges

Author: Serge Frolov
Title: Sleeping with the Enemy
Subtitle: Recent Scholarship on Sexuality in the Book of Judges
Journal: Currents in Biblical Research
Volume: 11
Issue: 3
Year: 2013
Pages: 308-327
ISSN: 1476-993X - eISSN: 1745-5200
Language: English
Full Text: SAGE Journals [Restricted Access]

Abstract: »Reviewing the publications of the last three decades, this article demonstrates that the period in question has been predictably marked by sharply increased attention to the sexual aspects of the book of Judges, and especially by sustained attempts to discover sexuality in the texts that had been commonly read with little to no reference to it. Refreshing as it is in many respects, this trend suffers from multiple vulnerabilities, including the exegetes’ tendency to stretch semantics of the biblical lexemes, ignore the syntactic layout and context of the discussed fragments, rely on problematic sexual symbolism, and produce interpretations that are less than edifying for contemporary Western audiences. As a result, much, although by no means all, of the recent quest for sexuality in Judges is unsustainable, as far as both the text and the reader are concerned.« [Source: Currents in Biblical Research]

ART: Viol d’hommes, masculinités et conflits armés

Author: Marc Le Pape
Title: Viol d’hommes, masculinités et conflits armés
Subtitle: -
Translation: Male Rape, Masculinities and Armed Conflicts
Journal: Cahiers d'études africaines
Volume: -
Issue: 209-210
Year: 2013
Pages: 201-215
ISSN: 0008-0055 - eISSN: 1777-5353
Language: French
Full Text: Cairn.info [Restricted Access]

Abstract: »For a long time the topic of sexual violence against men in wartime has been neglected. Inquiries have been conducted for the first time by human rights activists and some medical ngos during wars in ex-Yugoslavia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since as early as 2000, researchers began to investigate sexual assaults on men, and at the same time tried to explain why general comments by ngos and un agencies about sexual violence have explicitly excluded male victims. We examine these studies and the critical explanations they give for approaches exclusively oriented on the rape of women.« [Source: Cahiers d'études africaines]

ART: Sexual violence by occupational forces during and after World War II

Authors: Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, Tobias M. Glück, Ulrich S. Tran, and Elisabeth L. Zeilinger
Title: Sexual violence by occupational forces during and after World War II
Subtitle: Influence of experiencing and witnessing of sexual violence on current mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians
Journal: International Psychogeriatrics
Volume: 24
Issue: Special Issue 08: Focus on late life depression
Year: August 2012
Pages: 1354-1358
ISSN: 1041-6102 - eISSN: 1741-203X
Language: English
Full Text: Cambridge Journals [Restricted Access]

Abstract:
»Background: Wartime rape is an atrocity with long-lasting impacts not only on victims but whole societies. In this brief report, we present data on experience and witness of sexual violence during World War II (WWII) and subsequent time of occupation and on indicators of mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians.
Methods: Interviews of 298 elderly Austrians from a larger epidemiological study on WWII traumatization were analyzed for the impact of experience and witness of sexual violence during the wartime committed by occupational forces. Interviews comprised a biographical/historical section and psychological measures (BSI, TLEQ, PCL–C). Participants were recruited in all nine provinces of Austria with respect to former zones of occupation (Western Allied/Soviet).
Results: Twelve persons reported direct experience of sexual violence, 33 persons witnessed such atrocities. One third of the victims and 18.2% of the witnesses reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD full/subthreshold). Sexual violence occurred more often in the former Soviet zone. Victims and witnesses displayed higher odds of post-traumatic symptoms and symptoms of depression and phobic fear than non-victims. Furthermore, witnesses displayed higher levels of aggression compared to victims and non-witnesses.
Conclusions: Our results corroborate previous findings that wartime rape has long-lasting effects over decades on current mental health and post-traumatic distress in victims and witnesses. We recommend integration of psychotraumatological knowledge on consequences of sexual violence on mental health into geriatric care and the education of dedicated personnel.« [Source: International Psychogeriatrics]

ART: Violence against honour: shame and the crime of rape in the age of the Greek Revolution (1821-1828)

Author: Katerina Mousadakou
Title: Violence against honour
Subtitle: Shame and the crime of rape in the age of the Greek Revolution (1821-1828)
In: Shame, Blame and Culpability: Crime and Violence in the Modern State
Edited by: Judith Rowbotham, Marianna Muravyeva, and David Nash
Place: New York, NY
Publisher: Routledge
Year: 2013
Pages: 141-
Series: SOLON Explorations in Crime and Criminal Justice Histories
ISBN-13: 9780415537223 (hbk.) - ISBN-13: 9780203110621 (ebk.)
Language: English
Full Text: Google Books [Limited Preview]

REPORT: Psychotraumatologische Fragestellungen zu sexuellem Missbrauch und Gewalt in Einrichtungen des Landes Niederösterreich

Authors: Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, Dina Weindl, Viktoria Kantor, Matthias Knefel, Reinhold Jagsch, and Asisa Butollo
Title: Psychotraumatologische Fragestellungen zu sexuellem Missbrauch und Gewalt in Einrichtungen des Landes Niederösterreich
Subtitle: -
Place: Vienna
Publisher: Universität Wien (Autraggeber: Opferschutzeinrichtung des Landes NÖ)
Year: May 2013
Pages: 92pp.
Language: German
Full Text: Universität Wien [Free Access]

REPORT: Psychotraumatologische Fragestellungen zu Gewalt und Missbrauch in der Katholischen Kirche

Authors: Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, Viktoria Kantor, Dina Weindl, Reinhold Jagsch, Yvonne Moy, Asisa Butollo, and Matthias Knefel
Title: Psychotraumatologische Fragestellungen zu Gewalt und Missbrauch in der Katholischen Kirche
Subtitle: -
Place: Vienna
Publisher: Universität Wien
Year: November 2012
Pages: 85pp.
Language: German
Full Text: Universität Wien [Free Access]

June 8, 2013

ART: Addressing the Use of Sexual Violence as a Strategic Weapon of War

Author: Joshua A. Jones
Title: Addressing the Use of Sexual Violence as a Strategic Weapon of War
Subtitle: -
Journal: Student Pulse: Online Academic Student Journal
Volume: 5
Issue: 4
Year: 2013
Pages: 2pp.
Language: English
Full Text: Student Pulse [Free Access]

Abstract: »This paper examines historical and contemporary instances wherein sexual violence, specifically rape, was used as a strategic weapon amid both traditional and tribal conflict, as well as in genocidal operations. It analyzes the cogency of sexual violence as a weapon by considering its physical and psychological effects on victims and the morale of targeted populations. Additionally, it scrutinizes the motivations and intentions that support the use of sexual violence during armed conflict in order to ascertain potential methods by which the incentive may be removed or mediated. The intent of this paper is to identify the use of rape in warfare as a crime against humanity. Accordingly, it presents applicable international laws that may be cited in the adjudication of rape warfare practitioners and suggests prosecution is the duty of the international community. It introduces specific examples of the effective enforcement of these laws as well as criticisms presented by victims’ advocates. Additionally, it proposes a humanitarian aid response that addresses the social damage which wartime sexual violence creates. This paper thus offers a two-pronged approach to the problem of wartime sexual violence: one of calculated judicial application and compassionate people-centered assistance.« [Source: Student Pulse]

ART: The Evolving Jurisprudence of the Crime of Rape in International Criminal Law

Author: Phillip Weiner
Title: The Evolving Jurisprudence of the Crime of Rape in International Criminal Law
Subtitle: -
Journal: Boston College Law Review
Volume: 54
Issue: 3
Year: 2013
Pages: 1207-1237
ISSN: 0161-6587
Language: English
Full Text: Digital Commons @ Boston College Law School [Free Access]

Abstract: »For centuries, rape has served as a weapon of war, despite criminal prohibitions forbidding its use. Nevertheless, only in recent decades has international law made significant strides in defining and prosecuting rape as a war crime and crime against humanity. International criminal tribunals prosecuting crimes of sexual violence in prior conflict zones such as Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and the former Yugoslavia have struggled to develop a coherent definition of the elements of rape. This is largely due to the unique aspects of consent and coercion that are inherent within a surrounding context of armed conflict. This Article begins by exploring the elements of rape as defined by the major international criminal tribunals existing today, and subsequently examines the manner in which each court considers proof of consent and coercion. It then surveys some of the recent and more progressive developments in rape law jurisprudence both domestically and internationally. Finally, this Article recommends several specific steps that international criminal tribunals could employ to more effectively and equitably prosecute rape as a war crime and crime against humanity.« [Source: Boston College Law Review]

REV: Rape in Chicago: Race, Myth, and the Courts

Author: Danielle L. McGuire
Title: Rape in Chicago: Race, Myth, and the Courts. By Dawn Rae Flood. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2012. xiv, 235 pp. $55.00.)
Journal: The Journal of American History
Volume: 100
Issue: 1
Year: June 2013
Pages: 275
ISSN: 0021-8723 - eISSN: 1945-2314
Language: English
Full Text: Oxford Journals [Restricted Access]

RADIO: Justice or retribution: the story of Bangladesh's International Crimes Tribunal

Title: Justice or retribution: the story of Bangladesh's International Crimes Tribunal
Program: Rear Vision
Channel: ABC Radio National
Date: June 2, 1013
Duration: 29:35 min.
Language: English

Description:
»In 1971 a conflict marred by atrocities and war crimes led to the creation of the state of Bangladesh.
After 40 years of inaction the government of Bangladesh established the International Crimes Tribunal to bring those who committed war crimes to justice. This month the war crimes court sentenced a senior Islamic party politician, Mohammad Kamaruzzaman, to death for masterminding the slaughter of at least 120 farmers in one of the bloodiest single episodes of the 1971 independence war. In a ruling likely to further fuel tensions between the secular government and religious hardliners, the special tribunal found Mohammad Kamaruzzaman guilty of mass killing, torture, abduction and crimes against humanity. But is the tribunal really looking for justice and are all those who committed crimes being tried?«

Podcast: ABC

June 1, 2013

ART: The Bangladesh War Crimes Trials - Strengthening Normative Structure

Author: Sai Ramani Garimella
Title: The Bangladesh War Crimes Trials
Subtitle: Strengthening Normative Structure
Journal: Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization
Volume: 13
Issue: -
Year: 2013
Pages: 27-37
ISSN: 2224-3240 - eISSN: 2224-3259
Language: English
Full Text: International Institute for Science, Technology & Education [Free Access]

Abstract: »Post-Nuremberg there has been an interesting variety of criminal justice mechanisms to ensure avoidance of impunity for war crimes. Apart from the ICTY, ICTR mechanisms and the ICC, States have also exercised sovereign territorial right to try war crimes. State interests and international concern aiming at ensuring avoidance of impunity can be effectively blended in the institution and applicable law too, like was done in Kosovo, Timor and Cambodia. Handled by international community it could restore the credibility of the State's intention to try war crimes. Bangladesh’s law on punishing war crimes during the liberation war has come in for much criticism for its features that are against the fundamental due process norms that apply across the diversity of justice mechanisms. This research paper looks at the recent judgment of the ICT in Bangladesh from the perspective of the due process concerns and presents the hybrid tribunals as an alternative methodology for criminalizing war crimes in Bangladesh legislation.« [Source: Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization]

ART: Gender and Sexuality in Terence

Author: Sharon L. James
Title: Gender and Sexuality in Terence
Subtitle: -
In: A Companion to Terence
Edited: Antony Augoustakis and Ariana Traill
Place: Oxford
Publisher: Blackwell
Year: 2013
Pages: 175-194
ISBN-13: 9781405198752 - eISBN-13: 9781118301975
Language: English
Full Text: Wiley Online Library [Restricted Access]

Abstract: »Terence presents gender and sexuality, on his stage, as strictly delimited by the interests and perspectives of the citizen class, particularly the men. A brief overview of the relevant theatrical background focuses on what is distinctive about gender and sexuality in Terence's drama. But if sexuality is absent from Terence's old men, gender (defined by age and class) continues to rule them. For women in Terence, gender—a social construct—overrides individual sexuality, and in the citizen girl, both are restricted to relative passivity. Rape in Terence's drama merits a separate discussion, as it is a defining marker of both gender and sexuality. In Terence sex and gender are subordinate functions of class and age. This chapter presents a discussion of the gender and sexuality of two best-known courtesans in Terence, Bacchis of Hecyra and Thais of Eunuchus.« [Source: Wiley]

ART: Eunuchus

Author: David M. Christenson
Title: Eunuchus
Subtitle: -
In: A Companion to Terence
Edited: Antony Augoustakis and Ariana Traill
Place: Oxford
Publisher: Blackwell
Year: 2013
Pages: 262-280
ISBN-13: 9781405198752 - eISBN-13: 9781118301975
Language: English
Full Text: Wiley Online Library [Restricted Access]

Abstract: »Eunuchus was Terence's most successful play and garnered unprecedented revenues when it debuted in 161 BCE. Terence, through the play's unprecedented emphasis on the immediacy of Pampila's rape, is provoking audience members, both male and female, to look at it from a fundamentally humane point of view. The notion of metatheater, generally used to describe a play's theatrical reflexiveness has drawn much attention in recent studies of Roman Comedy, especially in the case of Plautus, whose characters frequently broadcast their deceptive roles in terms of playmaking. The central character of Eunuchus is Thais. As characters in ancient drama do not seem to deliberately deceive audiences in monologues, Thais reveals herself to be a hooker with a heart of gold, in so far as she has genuine feelings of affection for Phaedria, is truthful with him, and wants to help Pamphila for the not entirely selfish reasons she has revealed.« [Source: Wiley]

ART: Message by massacre: Venezuela's War to the Death, 1810–1814

Author: Karen Racine
Title: Message by massacre
Subtitle: Venezuela's War to the Death, 1810–1814
Journal: Journal of Genocide Research
Volume: 15
Issue: 2
Year: 2013
Pages: 201-217
ISSN: 1462-3528 - eISSN: 1469-9494
Language: English
Full Text: Taylor & Francis Online [Restricted Access]

Abstract: »During the ‘War to the Death’, which took place in Venezuela (and parts of modern-day Colombia) between 1813–1815, there was an extensive campaign of symbolic violence on both the patriot and royal sides, with various types of massacres being carried out against specific targets and by specific groups, with racialized or gendered overtones often laid over the more obvious political categories. For example, when American patriots captured royalist strongholds, European Spaniards (including elderly men) were hauled out of their homes, paraded around in feminizing poses, such as being placed side-saddle on mules, before they were executed. Similarly, royalist commanders ridiculed patriot women sympathizers as traitors to their God and King (not to mention their biology) and executed them in ways that aimed to restore the women's gender submission, which could include rape, hanging upside down to emphasize their genitalia, and ripping stomachs open to reveal (and simultaneously ruin) wombs. Both the royalist and patriot sides engaged in body-related communication through the sending of notes written in blood, the hanging of corpses in sacred places, the taking of ears and other body parts to be worn as part of a triumphant Indian-style war costume. Both sides courted the local slave population and incorporated imagined elements of African warfare to augment their message. Depending on the particular context, rumours of imagined African-style cannibalism were floated among populations to create fear and hostility. The essay will be based on eight years of archival research in Venezuela, Spain, Britain and the United States, along with contemporary memoirs, correspondence, newspaper accounts, travelogues, and the extensive secondary literature in English, Spanish, French and Portuguese.« [Source: Journal of Genocide Research]

ART: Textbooks and Patriotic Education: Wartime Memory Formation in China and Japan

Author: Daniel Sneider
Title: Textbooks and Patriotic Education
Subtitle: Wartime Memory Formation in China and Japan
Journal: Asia-Pacific Review
Volume: 20
Issue: 1
Year: 2013
Pages: 35-54
ISSN: 1343-9006 - eISSN: 1469-2937
Language: English
Full Text: Taylor & Francis Online [Restricted Access]

Abstract: »The treatment of the wartime period in Japan's history textbooks has long been a subject of debate and controversy, even a source of international tension. Since their creation, history textbooks have been used to shape national identity and encourage patriotism. This article, drawing on the comparative study of high school history textbooks in Japan, China, South Korea, Taiwan and the United States by Stanford's Divided Memories and Reconciliation project, compares the treatment of the wartime period in the textbooks of China and Japan. The study found that Japanese textbooks are relatively devoid of overt attempts to promote patriotism and that they contain more information about controversial wartime issues such as the Nanjing Massacre than is widely believed. In contrast, Chinese textbooks, particularly after their revision a decade ago, are consciously aimed at promoting a nationalist view of the past as part of the country's “patriotic education” campaign. The article warns, however, against efforts in Japan to promote a Japanese-style version of patriotic education.« [Source: Asia-Pacific Review]

ART: The Dark Side of Liberation

Author: Jennifer Schuessler
Title: The Dark Side of Liberation
Subtitle: -
Journal: The New York Times
Year: May 21, 2013
Pages: C1
Language: English
Full Text: New York Times [Free Access]

ART: Rape Was Rampant During the Vietnam War

Author: Nick Turse
Title: Rape Was Rampant During the Vietnam War
Subtitle: Why Doesn't US History Remember This?
Journal: Mother Jones
Year: March 19, 2013
ISSN: 0362-8841
Language: English
Full Text: Mother Jones [Free Access]

BOOK: What Soldiers Do: Sex and the American GI in World War II France

Author: Mary Louise Roberts
Title: What Soldiers Do
Subtitle: Sex and the American GI in World War II France
Place: Chicago, IL
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Year: 2013
Pages: 368pp.
Language: English

BOOK: Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam

Author: Nick Turse
Title: Kill Anything That Moves
Subtitle: The Real American War in Vietnam
Place: New York, NY
Publisher: Metropolitan Books
Year: 2013
Pages: 384pp.
Language: English
More information: History of Rape: A Bibliography

(Update: October 25, 2014)

THESIS: Rape as a Weapon of War: The Demystification of the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War

Author: Alisse Baumgarten
Title: Rape as a Weapon of War
Subtitle: The Demystification of the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War
Thesis: Senior Thesis, Claremont McKenna College
Year: 2013
Pages: 85pp.
Language: English
Full Text: Scholarship @ Claremont [Free Access]

Abstract: »The German Armed Forces were originally thought to be completely innocent of all war crimes associated with unethical Nazi racial policies. This has been proven not to be the case. History has adjusted itself to show that Wehrmacht forces were guilty of virtually every war crime except for the sexual violation foreign women. Due to the long-standing assumption that Nazi racial ideology prevented the intermingling of the “Aryan” race with the “unworthy” Eastern European races, this myth was rarely questioned. Given the lack of hard evidence proving that civilian women were raped by invading Wehrmacht troops, a firm conclusion is out of the question. However, with a concrete understanding of the Nazi attitude towards sexual relations, the components in the East that led to a breakdown in Wehrmacht discipline, and the resulting reaction of the Soviet Union in light of this brutality, one can surmise the type of violence women were forced to endure. Through the research conducted in this thesis, it is likely that the mass rape of Eastern European women did indeed occur. The silence that surrounds this issue is highly indicative of the cultural elements that prevent an open discussion of this topic. This thesis is meant to spark a discussion of the implications and reverberations of mass rape in a wartime setting.« [Source: Scholarship @ Claremont]

THESIS: Die Ästhetik sexueller Gewalt bei Yvonne Vera und Calixthe Beyala: Repräsentation von Vergewaltigung und weiblicher Artikulation in The Stone Virgins und C'est le soleil qui m'a brûlée

Author: Laura Fuchs-Eisner
Title: Die Ästhetik sexueller Gewalt bei Yvonne Vera und Calixthe Beyala
Subtitle: Repräsentation von Vergewaltigung und weiblicher Artikulation in The Stone Virgins und C'est le soleil qui m'a brûlée
Thesis: Diplomarbeit, Universität Wien
Year: 2012
Pages: 157pp.
Language: German
Full Text: HochschülerInnenschaft an der Universität Wien [Free Access]

Abstract: »Rape scenes in literature demand for analysis in two ways. On the one hand, the representation of sexual and gender-based violence deals implicitly with socio- and gender-political questions. On the other hand, its reception is guided by the aesthetics of the narrative. Therefore, this paper considers how and with which political implications sexual violence is represented in the novels The Stone Virgins (2002) by Yvonne Vera and C'est le soleil qui m'a brûlée (1987) by Calixt he Beyala. The paper demonstrates that these novels can be read as feminist and subversive texts that reflect theoretical considerations on rape and its representation not only on their thematic, but also on their narrative level. For the analysis of the motive of rape, the paper draws on feminist post-structuralist theories on sexual violence and subjectivity (cf. Louise du Toit, Sharon Marcus and Sabine Sielke) and post-colonial approaches to representation (cf. Gayatri Spivak). With their focus on culturally oriented narratology, the theories of Mieke Bal, Susan Lanser and Birgit Wagner will prove helpful to bridge political and poetological aspects. Finally, Martin Seel will be considered for questions on the interplay of aesthetics and (literary) violence.« [Source: Laura Fuchs-Eisner]

REV: What Soldiers Do: Sex and the American GI in World War II France

Author: Fiona Reid
Title: What Soldiers Do: Sex and the American GI in World War II France by Mary Louise Roberts
Journal: Times Higher Education
Year: May 23, 2013
Full Text: Times Higher Education [Free Access]

RADIO: Stell dich nicht so an! Indizien für eine Rape Culture

Title: Stell dich nicht so an! Indizien für eine Rape Culture
Program: Zündfunk Generator
Channel: Bayern 2
Date: May 12, 2013
Language: German
Duration: 59:55 min.

Description: »Rape Culture - damit ist eine Gesellschaft gemeint, die sexuelle Gewalt duldet, verharmlost oder befördert und die Verantwortung auf die Opfer verschiebt. Leben auch wir in einer "Rape Culture"? In Deutschland taucht der Begriff „Rape Culture“ in den letzten Jahren zunehmend in feministischen Blogsauf. Massive Kritik an der Rape Culture übt seit 2011 die weltweite Slut-Walk-Bewegung, die gegen falsche Vorstellungen von sexueller Gewalt auf die Straße geht. Denn spätestens seit der deutschen Sexismusdebatte zu Beginn des Jahres 2013 wurde wieder klar: Schuldzuweisungen wie „Hättest Du doch die Bluse zugemacht!“ sind noch immer salonfähig. Leben auch wir in einer „Rape Culture“? Was hat es mit dem Begriff auf sich? Ist es nur ein feministischer Kampfbegriff für den Wahnsinn, den Frauen täglich erleben? Oder ist es die treffende Bezeichnung für unsere Gesellschaft?«

Manuskript: Bayerischer Rundfunk
Podcast: Bayerischer Rundfunk